When you edit publishing page in Sharepoint and click Page layouts button on the ribbon you may face with the following problem: list with available page layouts won’t be opened. Instead the only thing which you will see is popup message “Apply a new layout to this page”.
One of possible reason may be the following. If you will open browser console at developer tools and click on the ribbon button again, the following error will be shown:
Unable to get property nodeName of undefined or null reference
In this case go to Site settings > Page layouts and site templates. Here in Page layouts section instead of “Pages inherit preferred layouts from parent site” select “Pages in this site can only use the following layouts”. In the left list of layouts select all page layouts except those which start with “(Invalid Associated Content Type)”. Also check that in the right list of selected layouts there are no such page layouts. After that click Save. If you now go to the publishing page, refresh it and edit you will find that list of available page layouts is now shown.
Another solution which may be useful if you need to allow using of all page layouts is to check all page layouts which have “(Invalid Associated Content Type)” prefix, then check their urls (it can be done by inspecting left and right lists of page layouts in Site settings > Page layouts and site templates in developer tools: values of options elements of these lists contain urls of the pages in /_catalogs/masterpage so you will easily find them), then go to Site settings > Master pages and page layouts, find appropriate page layouts and change their content type to the correct ones.